Italy’s Olive-Oil Industry Sees Simmering Threats from Climate Change and Nasty Bacteria

By Eric Reguly
ROME, Nov 6 2019 (IPS)

On a warm Saturday morning in late October, the silver-green
leaves of the 200 productive olive trees on a rolling country
property in Umbria, in central Italy, sparkled in the brilliant
sun. Fausto Venturi, a local farmer who devotes autumn weekends to
making olive oil, could not have been happier.

The weather was perfect for harvesting the Moraiolo olives. The
small, round green fruit is indigenous to Umbria and Tuscany,
prized by olive growers for its high yield and among connoisseurs
for the oil’s gorgeous emerald-green colour and fruity aroma,
with hints of artichokes and herbs. Better yet, the trees were in
near full bloom, signalling a rare bumper crop. Climate change, bug
infestations and disease, notably the horrific Xylella fastidiosa
bacterium that is killing millions of olive trees in southern
Italy, has made life somewhere between difficult and miserable –
depending on the region – for Italy’s crucial olive-oil
industry in recent years.

The European Commission’s website calls Xylella “one of the
most dangerous plant bacteria worldwide, causing a variety of
diseases, with huge economic impact for agriculture, public gardens
and the environment.” It can also attack stone fruits such as
cherries, almonds and plums.

The bacterium is terrorizing olive-orchard owners in Puglia, in
the heel of the Italian boot. Puglia and Calabria – the toe –
account for more than two-thirds of Italian olive-oil production
(Umbria provides only 2 per cent). If those two regions were to get
wiped out, the enormous industry – supplied by about 250 million
trees on 700,000 olive farms covering 1.1 million hectares –
would be moribund. That scenario is not out of the question. The
bacterium arrived in southern Puglia, near the baroque city of
Lecce, in 2013. The source is thought to be an infected ornamental
coffee plant imported from Costa Rica. It has acted as a wrecking
machine, infecting about 21 million trees, according to Coldiretti,
Italy’s agriculture association.

Industry estimates put Italian olive-oil production in the
disastrous 2016-17 harvest at only 200,000 tonnes, down by more
than half from the previous year, owing to a particularly nasty
combination of extreme weather events, a fruit-fly attack and
Xylella. Olive-orchard owners such as Mr. Venturi say “normal”
harvest years are becoming rarer.

The disease is carried by a tiny insect known by various names,
including the spittlebug. The bacteria spread by the bugs latches
onto xylem tubes, the trees’ water-and-nutrient-transportation
system, producing what the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) calls an “internal drought.” The weakened
branches, leaves and fruit die, then the whole tree withers away,
producing eerie ghost orchards. The infected trees are difficult to
quarantine quickly; the long incubation period means visible
symptoms often don’t arise until seven months to a year after the
infection sets in. “There is no cure for it,” said Shoki
Al-Dobai, FAO’s transboundary plant pests and diseases team
leader in Rome. “It’s possible that it could keep spreading
north. That would be a disaster.”

Infected trees and those around them have to be destroyed,
sometimes in the presence of weeping farmers. Many of the olive
trees in Puglia are hundreds of years old, and at least one is
3,000 – it was ancient before Jesus was born. There are stories
of farmers chaining themselves to their cherished trees to try to
spare them from the chainsaw. But the Puglia tree cull, which was
way too slow at first, continues and is being monitored closely by
agriculture officials at the European Commission.

Arrigo Peri, an orthodontist in Rome, lives in fear because his
family owns an organic 1,000-tree olive orchard near the coastal
city of Bari, about 80 kilometres northwest of Puglia’s infected
zones. He’s had a string of bad harvests owing to extreme
weather, including drought and frost (which cut his normal yield by
80 per cent last year) and severe olive-fly infestations that may
be the result of climate change. And now the threat of Xylella.
“My last good yield was three years ago,” he said. “Yes, we
are getting worried about Xylella. It’s the last thing we
need.”

The disease hasn’t hit Umbria yet, but a subspecies has been
spotted right next door in Tuscany and a few other parts of
Southern Europe, including Corsica and Spain’s Balearic Islands.
Mr. Venturi and other olive-oil makers are terrified that Xylella
will plow through his region at some point. “We are praying it
doesn’t arrive, but it could,” he said.

In a recent report, Martin Godefroid of the French National
Institute for Agriculture Research, said that generally warmer
temperatures are making life easier for Xylella, which is a
tropical disease. He said that “climate change may strongly
impact [the bacterium’s] distribution.”

Consumers in Italy and other countries who
cherish healthy and flavoursome extra-virgin olive oil – which is
made by pressing the olives, rather than using heat or chemicals to
help extract the oil – are paying the price. Retail prices are
rising as weather-related shortages develop, and the quality among
cheaper brands is falling as blends of foreign or low-quality bulk
oils make it onto supermarket shelves. “The oil you now buy in
supermarkets won’t be 100-per-cent Italian,” Mr. Venturi said.
“It might be mixed with Tunisian and Moroccan oils.”

Italy is Europe’s second-largest olive-oil producer, after
Spain, and accounts for a quarter of the continent’s olive
harvest. The industry is worth billions of euros a year. In most of
the world, families make do with cheap, mass-produced oils made
from palm, canola, corn and other vegetable plants for their intake
of fats. But in the Mediterranean countries, where the vast
majority of the world’s olives are grown, meals devoid of virgin
olive oil are virtually unthinkable.

Mr. Venturi, 49, said an entirely unexpected deep freeze last
spring in Umbria sent yields tumbling. The trees on this particular
property, located about a 20-minute drive from Spoleto, a medieval
gem of a city and UNESCO heritage site, produced only about 85
litres of oil in the fall; this year, he expects 320. The oil will
sell for about €12 ($17.50) a litre in the local market (he kicks
back about 10 per cent, in the form of oil, to the owners of the
property).

After he and his colleague covered the ground with enormous
fine-mesh nets, used to catch the harvested olives, they fired up a
small diesel generator to power an air compressor, which in turn
powered the thrashing mechanical rakes that shake the branches and
comb off the olives. “Watch out for vipers here,” he warned.
“They’re poisonous.”

The biggest, healthiest trees let drop 15 kilograms to 20
kilograms of olives. After a couple of hours of exhausting work,
they filled two large containers. Harvesting all of the
property’s trees would take two men three or four days, from dawn
to dusk.

The olives were transported by tractor to the local frantoio
(olive press), in this case a private business called Frantoio
Filippi that presses olives from its own 1,000-tree farm and those
from nearby farms.

Two years ago, the Filippi family installed a new pressing
system, an array of tubes, belts, crushers, mixers, centrifuges and
filters that transforms raw olives into oil within two hours. The
olives, many with leaves still attached, are dumped into a hopper.
Leaf removal and olive washing are the next stages, followed by the
grinding of the olives by both disks and hammers. The result is a
thick slurry that looks like green pasta sauce and is, in fact,
called an olive pasta. It’s pumped into a centrifuge that
separates the water from the oil.

After passing through filters, the final product is a dazzling,
almost fluorescent, emerald oil that emerged from the spigot
carrying the faint smell of apples. “Every terrain produces
olives with a different smell, depending on the soil, light and
other conditions,” said Federico Caporali, 43, co-owner of
Frantoio Filippi.

He said this season was much better than some of the previous
years, when extreme temperatures and too much rain sent production
plummeting. “But we hope Xylella doesn’t come here,” he
said.

This story was originally published by The Globe and Mail,
Canada

The post
Italy’s Olive-Oil Industry Sees Simmering Threats from Climate
Change and Nasty Bacteria
appeared first on Inter Press Service.

Excerpt:

Poor weather and disease have killed millions of trees and
decimated yields in Italy’s olive country, and consumers can
taste the difference

The post
Italy’s Olive-Oil Industry Sees Simmering Threats from Climate
Change and Nasty Bacteria
appeared first on Inter Press Service.

Source: FS – All – Ecology – News
Italy’s Olive-Oil Industry Sees Simmering Threats from Climate Change and Nasty Bacteria